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宋、金、元钧瓷的演变|钧瓷鉴定拍卖价格

古董鉴定交易咨询平台2018-06-19 18:45:53

钧瓷,举世闻名。其窑址位于今河南省禹县(汝州市)境内。钧瓷与众不同的地方在于它是一种乳浊釉,烧成的釉色青中带红,灿若蓝天飘舞红霞,故而吸引了古今中外无数瓷迷苦苦追求……。现参照本人搜集到的宋元钧瓷片试析均窑宋、金、元时的演变与鉴别(以民窑均瓷为主)。

Jun, known to the world. The site is located in this Yu County in Henan province (Ruzhou) territory. Jun out of the ordinary place is that it is a kind of opaque glaze, firing glaze green with red, blue sky flying Canruo Hongxia, which attracted countless fans chasing porcelain at all times and in all countries....... The evolution and differentiation of song, Jin and yuan on the Song Yuanjun tiles referring now I collected all the kiln (in kilns were mainly porcelain).

北宋 窑窑变釉大花盆

拍卖结果

LOT号: 0369

估价: 5,800.00-5,800.00万

成交价: 5,800.00

拍卖公司: 北京中嘉(北京)

拍卖日期: 2009-12-06


一、宋代民窑钧瓷的主要特征

1、胎色。由瓷片的截断面观察,宋民钧胎色呈土灰色,深一些的泛黑,浅一些的泛白,胎土精细,烧结度好,极少沙眼孔隙,胎与釉之间都施有一层极薄的白色化妆土,修胎薄且匀整。

2、釉色。宋民钧釉色以天青、月白为主调,稍浅的青灰,稍深的青蓝,施釉较厚,一般约在0.1厘米左右。釉面匀净,抚之柔润光滑。高倍放大镜下可见釉中气泡密集,表面的大,深层的小。因窑变生成的紫红斑不规则,色釉浓淡不一,就连同一块斑上亦多有变化,浓者如紫蓝,淡者似桃红。青红二色融合自然,沉入釉中,因此看上去较为含蓄,红斑上象罩有一层薄雾,在大部分青蓝釉色或月白釉色的映衬下,格外迷人。

3、以碗为例,圈足切削方式为足内侧稍向外斜削,外侧竖直削,足根平切,切后宽度约在0.5厘米左右,圈足施酱色护胎釉,足底施釉与器身釉一致,圈足较浅而大的盘或洗,其足底釉上都留有黄豆大小的支钉痕。

4、碗口沿修胎较薄,有尖刃感,故口沿或有楞角的部位因釉水垂流而呈灰白色或灰黄色,边圈再往下渐变成天青色,至足肩处积釉较厚。

The main features of the Song Dynasty, Jun porcelain kilns

1, fetal color. The tiles of the truncation surface observation, Song Minjun fetal color is gray, darker black, lighter white, fine clay, good sintering, rare trachoma pores, fetal and glaze all white makeup of soil has a layer of thin, thin and even tire repair.

2, glaze. Song Minjun glaze to azure and pale blue tone, slightly shallow blue, slightly darker blue glaze, thick, generally about 0.1 cm. Glaze even, smooth and soft touch. At high magnification, the bubbles in the glaze are dense, the surface is large and the depth is small. Because the fambe generated irregular purple erythema, different colored glaze, together with a spot on the many changes, such as dense purple blue, pale like pink. Red and blue two color fusion of nature, sink into the glaze, it looks more subtle, like a layer of cover with mist, against most blue glaze or pale blue glaze, especially charming.

3, to bowl for example, cutting the medial foot to foot slightly outward from the outer vertical cut, cut, cut cut foot root, width is about 0.5 cm, with application of caramel glaze protection, foot and body glaze glaze, with shallow and large disc or wash the foot the glaze have bean size nail marks.

4, the opening along the tire repair is thin and has a sharp edge, so the edge or corner of the corrugated parts due to glaze water down stream and greyish white or pale yellow, edge ring down gradient to shoulder all blue, foot thick glaze product.




二、元代民窑钧瓷的主要特征

1、胎色。元民钧瓷胎色由断面观察多呈深灰色,甚者呈黑灰色。据文献记载及本人手头的实物资料表明,河南禹县钧台一带的窑口温度高烧制的钧瓷胎,基本上是深灰色或灰色,而山西、河北、河南北部林县鹤壁等窑口烧制的钧瓷胎多是灰白或灰黄色,胎土稍粗,烧结后多有空隙,胎与釉之间施有白色化装土。

2、釉色以天青或月白为主,其他青中泛白、泛蓝、泛黑、泛紫、泛红的亦有所见。施釉稍薄,一般在0.07厘米左右。釉面桔皮纹明显。肉眼可见釉内气泡大而疏以及釉水流动痕迹。有的几成油滴或兔毫纹。窑变釉红斑较为飘浮,颜色鲜艳,红色与青色几乎不相融合,看上去较机械呆板,似人工贴画而成。

3、碗类器物圈足较宽厚,内外皆不施釉,切削方式为内侧向外斜削,外侧竖直削,足根平切后里高外低,挖足后足心留有一明显乳突痕,乳突周围可见疏密不一的旋纹。圈足截面呈八字状。

4、碗类器物口沿较厚,成圆状而光滑,因垂釉而呈浅灰、褐灰或褐黄色宽带边。修胎草率,胎青厚重。施釉不到底,近圈足处露胎,露胎处以上有较厚的积釉痕,多一侧更为显著。

The two main features of Yuan Dynasty, Jun porcelain kilns

1, fetal color. Yuan Minjun: from the color section to observe what is dark grey, with dark grey. According to the documents and materials that I do, Henan Yu Xianjun Taiwan area of the kiln temperature high fever system of Jun porcelain, basically is dark gray or gray, while Shanxi, Hebei, Hebi and other northern Henan County Forest kilns burning Jun porcelain is gray or yellowish gray clay, slightly rough, after sintering many voids, white makeup soil between the tire and the glaze.

2, glaze with azure or pale blue, green, blue, white and other pan black, purple, red also see. Glaze slightly thin, generally about 0.07 cm. Orange peel. It is easy to see that the bubbles in the glaze are large and sparse. Some oil droplets or tuhao lines. Fambe glaze erythema is floating, bright colors, red and green are hardly fusion, looks relatively stiff, like artificial stickers and.

3 kinds of objects, a bowl of foot generous, both inside and outside the glaze, cutting inside outward from the outer vertical cut, cut, cut foot root after high and low, digging foot after foot heart left a clear mark around the mastoid, mastoid density a rotation pattern. Foot section was eight shaped.

4 kinds of objects, the bowl edge is thick, round shape and smooth, with vertical and glaze was light gray, brown gray or brown yellow band. Repair tire rash, fetal green heavy. The glaze is not in the end, near the exposed foot tread, reveal the fetal above product glaze thick marks, one side is more significant.




三、民窑宋钧与元钧的区别

通过对上述钧瓷片的观察分析,可将宋民钧与元民钧的区别归结为以下几个主要方面:

1、宋民钧胎色大多呈灰色,胎土细,胎骨薄,修坯规整。元民钧大多呈深灰色,胎土粗,胎骨厚,修坯草率;

2、宋钧釉水厚,施釉到底,釉面细润光滑;元钧釉水稍薄,施釉不到底,釉面桔皮纹显著;

3、宋钧大部分圈足底心平坦且施釉,足墙施有酱褐色护胎釉,元钧圈足底心有乳突痕,且不施釉;

4、宋钧窑变红斑动感强,青蓝釉与红釉能彼此相融。以紫红色居多,且含蓄深沉。元钧窑变红较呆板,色调单一,多艳丽飘浮。

The difference between the three, the song and Yuan Jun Jun kilns

Through the observation of the Jun porcelain analysis, Song Minjun and Yuan Minjun can be attributed to the difference between the following aspects:

1, Song Minjun fetal color is mostly gray, fetal fine soil, fetal bone thin, repair billet. Yuan Minjun is mostly dark gray, rough fetal soil, fetal bone thickness, repair hastily;

2, Song Jun glaze thick glaze, glazed smooth Xirun; in the end, Yuan Jun glaze slightly thin, glaze glaze was not in the end, orange peel;

3, most of the circle of the heart of the foot flat and glazing, the foot of the wall with a brown sauce to protect the fetal glaze, Jun Jun circle of the heart of the heart of the mastoid scar, and no glaze Song Jun;

In 4, Song Junyao became erythema dynamic, blue glaze and glaze can blending with each other. In the majority of purple, and implicit deep. Yuan Jun red fambe is rigid, single color, multi colored float.




必须指出的是,要学会把上述局部特征综合成整体面貌来认识,才能更准确地区分宋钧与元钧的不同。做伪者常常是只顾一点而忽视整体的制作,故往往留下不少漏洞。以上是我个人对搜集到的宋、元钧瓷片观察分析所得,描述出来供瓷友们鉴赏时参考,我常常在欣赏宋、元钧窑瓷片时沉浸在自我陶醉之中,梦幻般地将片片玛瑙熔化成瓶、炉、碗……,眼前出现宋钧的俊秀、典雅、飘逸、元钧古朴、雄浑、豪放……。

It must be pointed out that we should learn to integrate the local features into the overall look to understand the difference between the Song Dynasty and the yuan Jun. Do false is often just a little and ignore the overall production, so often leave a lot of loopholes. The above is my personal song and Yuan Jun porcelain on the collected observation analysis, reference description for Porcelain Appreciation friends, I often enjoy the song and Yuan Jun porcelain when immersed in narcissism, dreamy will melt into a piece of agate bottle, furnace, bowl...... In the eyes of the Song Jun handsome, elegant, elegant, Yuan Jun simple, forceful, bold.......

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